Snabb fakta: lagen och asylprocessen

På denna sida har vi samlat kort, övergripande fakta kring asylprocessens alla steg och relevant lagstiftning. Här ges också råd och tips på hur du bäst kan göra ditt ärende hört som asylsökande hbtq-person, hur du själv kan styrka ditt ärende samt vilka dina rättigheter och skyldigheter som asylsökande är.

Viktiga termer och begrepp

 


I Sverige är det Migrationsverket som först prövar ansökningar om asyl. Reglerna för vem som kan få asyl står i FN:s flyktingkonvention och i svensk lag, utlänningslagen. Information på den här sidan kommer bland annat från Migrationsverkets hemsida.

Asylum seekers

An asylum seeker is a person who makes their way to Sweden and applies for protection (asylum) here, but whose application has not yet been considered.

Reasons for granting asylum seekers residence permits

Sweden has signed the UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. This means, among other things, that Sweden will examine each asylum application individually.

The individual examination includes taking the applicant’s gender identity and sexual orientation (that is, whether the applicant is homosexual, bisexual or transgender) into account.

Sweden will grant a residence permit to a person who is a refugee in accordance with the UN Convention, and also to a person in need of “subsidiary protection” in accordance with joint EU regulations.

Refugee

In accordance with the UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, Swedish legislation and EU regulations, a person is considered a refugee when they have well-founded reasons to fear persecution due to

  • race
  • nationality
  • religious or political beliefs
  • gender
  • sexual orientation, or
  • affiliation to a particular social group.

The persecution may originate with the authorities of the person’s native country. It may also be that the authorities are unable or unwilling to offer protection against persecution from individuals or groups.

A person who is assessed as a refugee will be granted a refugee status declaration, which is an internationally recognized status, based on the UN Refugee Convention as well as EU regulations.

Persons with a refugee status declaration are normally given a residence permit for three years. (Certain people who applied for asylum by November 24, 2015 at the latest may be given a permanent residence permit.)

Person in need of subsidiary protection

A person deemed in need of subsidiary protection is one who

  • is at risk of being sentenced to death
  • is at risk of being subjected to corporal punishment, torture or other inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment, or
  • as a civilian, is at serious risk of injury due to armed conflict.

A person who is assessed as in need of subsidiary protection will be granted a subsidiary protection status declaration, which is founded on EU regulations.

Persons with a protection status declaration are normally given a residence permit for 13 months. (Certain people who applied for asylum by November 24, 2015 at the latest may be given a permanent residence permit.)

Other protection

In exceptional cases asylum seekers may be granted a residence permit, even if they do not need protection from persecution. This requires extraordinary circumstances directly linked to their personal situation, (for example, people with very serious health issues or people subjected to human trafficking) implying that a decision to deny residence permit would conflict with Sweden’s international obligations.

Exceptions from the right to protection

If the investigation into your application reveals that you have committed war crimes, crimes against humanity or other serious crimes, or if you pose a threat to the country’s safety, you cannot be granted asylum in Sweden. You can still get a residence permit for a limited period if you are unable to return to your country of origin on the grounds that you risk being killed or persecuted there.

Synnerligen ömmande omständigheter i undantagsfall

Asylsökande kan undantagsvis beviljas uppehållstillstånd, trots att de inte behöver skydd mot förföljelse. Det handlar då om synnerligen ömmande omständigheter, som är direkt knutna till deras personliga förhållanden, som synnerligen allvarligt hälsotillstånd, anpassning till Sverige och situationen i hemlandet. En samlad bedömning av sådana omständigheter kan leda till uppehållstillstånd. För barn gäller att uppehållstillstånd kan beviljas om det föreligger särskilt ömmande omständigheter.

Eftersom det i dessa fall inte handlar om att ge skydd kan man inte heller få någon skyddsstatusförklaring.

Permanent uppehållstillstånd vanligast

Oavsett om en person får statusförklaring som flykting, alternativt skyddsbehövande, övrig skyddsbehövande eller beviljas uppehållstillstånd på grund av synnerligen ömmande omständigheter är det vanligast att uppehållstillståndet är utan tidsbegränsning – ett så kallat permanent uppehållstillstånd (PUT). I undantagsfall kan giltighetstiden begränsas men tillståndet är aldrig kortare än ett år.

Att söka asyl som hbtq-person

 


I Sverige är det Migrationsverket som först prövar ansökningar om asyl. Reglerna för vem som kan få asyl står i FN:s flyktingkonvention och i svensk lag, utlänningslagen. Mer information om utlänningslagen finns att tillgå på riksdagens hemsida.

Hur söker jag asyl?

Du söker asyl vid Sveriges gräns. Polisen är ansvarig för gränskontrollen i Sverige och kontrollerar att resenärerna har rätt att resa in i landet, till exempel att de har giltiga pass.

I många fall kan resenärerna passera gränsen till Sverige utan kontroll. Det beror på att Sverige, liksom de flesta andra länderna inom EU, deltar i Schengen-samarbetet. Alla människor som har rätt att vistas i ett land som ingår i Schengenområdet kan resa fritt över gränserna till andra Schengenländer. Vid gränserna mot länder utanför Schengenområdet är däremot kontrollerna av resenärernas handlingar noggranna.

Om en person söker asyl vid gränsen lämnar polisen över ärendet till Migrationsverket.

Lämna in en ansökan

Du bör ansöka om asyl vid Sveriges gräns. Om du redan har rest in kan du ansöka på någon av Migrationsverkets ansökningsenheter i Gävle, Göteborg, Malmö, Märsta, Norrköping eller Stockholm.

Migrationsverket bedömer om det är Sverige som ska pröva din asylansökan eller om ett annat land i första hand är skyldigt att göra det. Är det uppenbart att du saknar asylskäl kan Migrationsverket fatta ett snabbt beslut i ärendet; det kan till exempel gälla om du är medborgare i ett annat EU-land.

Du kommer att kallas till flera möten på Migrationsverket under den första tiden i Sverige. Det är viktigt att du kommer på de tider som Migrationsverket har bokat för dig. Vidare är det bra om du redan innan tar reda på vad dina rättigheter och skyldigheter är för att få en så rättvis och rättsäker asylprovning som möjligt. Om du kontaktar RFSL Newcomers kan du få stöd med detta.

Vikten av en bra jurist

Du kommer att få ett offentligt biträde som är jurist och som ska vara den som stödjer dig i din asylprocess.

Om du redan vet att du vill ha en specifik jurist måste du berätta för Migrationsverket tidigt att du vill ha den jurist som du vill ha. På RFSL är Aino Gröndahl offentligt biträde i asylutredningar för hbtq-personer. Det är möjligt att begära Aino Gröndahl som ditt offentliga biträde på Migrationsverket. Om du känner dig osäker kan du kontakta RFSL Newcomers och få stöd med vad som skulle vara bäst för dig.

Det är inte alla jurister som har hbtq-kompetens och många saknar kunskap om hbtq-frågor. Detta kan skada din asylutredning och, i värsta fall, leda till att du inte får en rättvis asylprövning.

Om du kommer i kontakt med RFSL Newcomers innan eller tidigt i din asylutredning kan du få stöd med att få en jurist med hbtq-kompetens från början. Om du redan har en jurist som du upplever inte har hbtq-kompetens kan du också ta kontakt med RFSL Newcomers och få stöd.

Asylutredningen

Ingen annan än du vet lika mycket om varför du lämnat ditt land. För att Migrationsverket ska kunna göra en riktig bedömning av dina skäl är det viktigt att du redan från början berättar allt om vad som hänt dig i ditt land. Som hbtq-person är det viktigt att du berättar redan vid första möten med Migrationsverket. I Sverige är det möjligt att söka asyl med bakgrund av att du är hbtq-person och är förföljd i ditt ursprungsland.

Migrationsverket kommer att ställa frågor om din identitet. Du ska ta med dig ditt pass eller andra id-handlingar. Handlingarna ska visa vad du heter, när du är född och vilket medborgarskap du har. Du ska berätta varför du söker asyl och vad som hänt dig. Vissa saker är svåra att prata om, men då kan de vara extra viktiga att berätta. Om du behöver kan du be om en paus i utredningen. Du kan ta med sådant som stödjer din berättelse eller information om ditt land till utredningen.

I Svensk lag är det den asylsökande som har huvudansvaret att lägga fram bevis för sin asylutredning tillsammans med sitt offentliga biträde.

Accommodation

The Swedish Migration Agency will offer you temporary accommodation while you wait for the outcome of your asylum case. You may also choose to arrange your own accommodation. If you have nowhere to live while you wait for the decision on the matter of your asylum, the Swedish Migration Agency can help you. You can also choose to arrange for the accommodation yourself, for instance you can live temporarily with your relatives or friends. If you arrange your own accommodation, you must submit your address so that the agency can contact you.

Accommodation with the Migration Agency

The Migration Agency offers a temporary accommodation while you wait for your decision. The agency will pay for your accommodation if you do not have money.

You will receive an accommodation based on availability

If you need the agency’s help for accommodation, you are not entitled to choose; rather you should be willing to move to a place where accommodation is available. It is also probable that while you wait for your decision, you may have to move to a new home in order to make room for more applicants.

Sharing an accommodation

The agency’s accommodation is only for asylum seekers. If you have been offered a place for accommodation, the place is applicable only to you. The accommodation is often a flat which is shared with others. A family always gets a separate room. Single people may share a room with other people of the same sex.

If you, for some reason, need a specially suited accommodation, you must talk to your reception centre. The Migration Agency maintains that everyone living in the accommodation must feel safe in it. It is important for all residents to respect each other and show each other consideration, irrespective of their religion, culture or sexual orientation.

Talk to your accommodation officer as soon as possible if you are an LGBTQ person and have special needs with respect to your accommodation. We will do what we can to find a solution that feels safe and good for you.

The right to housing ceases

You must move from your accommodation if you have received a rejection or a decision on expulsion and the decision has come into effect, or when your period for voluntary departure has expired.

This applies to you as an adult, not living with a child under 18, who you are a guardian for.

Own accommodation

If you do not want to live in the accommodation provided by the Migration Agency, you can find an accommodation yourself. Many choose to live with friends or relatives while they wait for a response to their application for asylum. If you choose to arrange your own accommodation, you have to pay for it.

If for some reason, you cannot stay in the house that you have arranged, you can move to one of the agency’s available accommodations. For more information, contact the reception centre where you are registered.

Regardless of where you choose to live – the agency’s accommodation or the one that you have arranged yourself – you must be available so that the Migration Agency can contact you. Remember to notify your reception centre of your new address if you relocate during the waiting period.

Vad kan du göra om du utsätts för diskriminering, trakasserier, hot och våld där du bor?
Newcomers kommer i kontakt med många asylsökande hbtq-personer som har utsatts för diskriminering, trakasserier, hot och våld på boenden som Migrationsverket tilldelar. Om du har blivit utsatt för någon form av diskriminering, trakasserier, hot eller våld, eller inte känner dig säker på ett av Migrationsverket erbjudna boenden, kan du kontakta oss på Newcomers. Våra kontaktuppgifter hittar du längst ner på denna sida eller på Newcomers kontaktsida.

Att leva som asylsökande i Sverige

LMA card for asylum seekers

LMA is short for “Lagen om mottagande av asylsökande” (Swedish Reception of Asylum Seekers’ Act). When you apply for asylum in Sweden your photo is taken. You later receive an LMA card. An LMA card is not an identity card (ID card), but is verification that you are an asylum seeker and are entitled to stay in Sweden while you wait for a decision. The card is personal and replaces the receipt they gave you when you handed in your asylum application.
You should show your LMA card whenever you contact the authorities. In certain cases the LMA card can be used as identification when you collect postal packages sent from aboard or registered post from the Swedish Migration Agency.

In certain cases you will receive a reduced patient’s fee when you seek health care with your LMA card. You also receive a reduced fee for most medicines that you buy with a prescription from a doctor, if you show your LMA card at the pharmacy.

Under your photo on the LMA card, there is a number which is useful when you talk to the Swedish Migration Agency’s staff. With this number it is simpler for the staff to access your documents more quickly.
ID-kort
You are required to return the card either if you are granted a residence permit or if you must leave Sweden.

Health care for asylum seekers

You who are seeking asylum in Sweden have the right to acute health and dental care and health care which cannot wait.
In Sweden, the county councils and regions are responsible for health care. This is valid everywhere in the country. Each county council or region has its own website with information about the health care they offer at hospitals and health care centres. There is also a common website for all the county councils and regions: 1177 Vårdguiden (health care guides).

In the 1177 health care guides, you can find among other things contact details and opening hours of the different health care and dental care clinics. You can call 1177 health care guides round the clock. The telephone number is 1177. When you call, you will talk to a nurse who will evaluate your need for care, give you an advice and direct you to the right health care clinic if necessary.

Read more on: Migrationsverket

Financial support for asylum seekers

It is important that you can support yourself. If you do not earn your own money and you do not have some other resources, you can apply for financial support from the Migration Agency. The financial support is made up of several parts: daily expenses compensation, accommodation (e.g. room, apartment etc.) compensation and special allowance.

When you seek asylum you must tell the Migration Agency how much money or other resources you have. If you do not have any own resources you get daily compensation to cover your daily expenses.

If your financial situation changes, for example you get a job, you must tell this to the Migration Agency. Not to tell that you are earning money while receiving daily expenses compensation is a criminal offense. Your right to daily expenses compensation may also be affected if you move. Therefore, always inform the Migration Agency if you have a new address.

Daily expenses compensation

Daily expenses compensation varies in amount depending on whether you live in a Migration Agency accommodation with food included, or in an accommodation with no food included.

If you are granted daily expenses compensation by the Migration Agency you will get a banking card which is linked to the account in which the money is deposited.

In accommodation where food is included the daily compensation is

  • 24 kr/day for adults who are alone
  • 19 kr/day per person for adults who share household expenses
  • 12 kr/day for children up to and including 17 years of age

In accommodation where food is not included the daily compensation is

  • 71 kr/day for adults who are alone
  • 61 kr/day per person for adults who share household expenses
  • 37 kr/day for children 0–3 years old
  • 43 kr/day for children 4–10 years old
  • 50 kr/day for children 11–17 years old

Families which have more than two children will get the whole daily compensation for the two eldest children and half the daily compensation for the other children.

Apart from food the daily compensation must suffice for clothes and shoes, health care and medicines, dental care, toilet articles, other consumer goods and leisure activities.

The daily compensation may be reduced if you

  • do not cooperate to establish your identity
  • hinder the investigation of your asylum request by hiding away
  • do not cooperate to organize your trip back home if you have received a decision rejecting your request or that you will be deported.

Special allowance

If you have a very strong need of something not covered by the daily compensation you can apply for a special allowance for it. You must demonstrate that you have a strong need of the item or service and that you cannot pay for it by yourself. It can be for example eyeglasses, a baby carriage or warm winter shoes. Migration Agency always makes an individual evaluation of the need.

You can only receive allowance for the cheapest alternative which is needed to satisfy the need.

When you are called to come to the Migration Agency for example to see about your asylum investigation, to meet with your reception administration officer or to participate in a group information event, you can get an allowance for your travel costs. Talk with the administration officer you will meet about his.

 

 

 

Kontakt Newcomers

E-post: newcomers@rfsl.se